Enzymatic extraction and clarification of juice from various fruits
Enzymes are an integral component of modern fruit juice manufacturing processes. Their main functions are to: increase extraction of juice from raw material, increase processing efficiency (pressing, solid settling or removal), and generate a final product that is clear and visually attractive. Juice extraction can be done by using various mechanical processes, which may be achieved through diffusion extraction, decanter centrifuge, screw type juice extractor, fruit pulper and by different types of presses. Enzymatic treatment prior to mechanical extraction significantly improves juice recovery compared to any other extraction process. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cell walls increases the extraction yield, reducing sugars, soluble dry matter content and galacturonic acid content and titrable acidity of the products. Enzymatic degradation of the biomaterial depends upon the type of enzyme, incubation time, incubation temperature, enzyme concentration, agitation, pH and use of different enzyme combinations. The use of the enzymes like cellulases, pectinases, amylases alone and their combination can give better juice yield with superior quality of the fruit juice. The present article discusses the use of enzymes in fruit juice production focusing on the juice recovery, clarity and effect on the biochemical properties of the fruit juices.